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Old 04-24-2011, 02:26 PM   #1
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Default Basic telemetry gone after firmware upgrade of Aurora 9

Hi guys.

Ive been a very satisfied owner of the Hitec Aurora 9 and a Optima 9 for a month or so.
Ive been using the basic (without sensorstation) telemetry function which transmits the battery voltage back the transmitter.
Its hooked up so voltage directly from the flight pack (8S lipo) is fed to the SPC-port and regulated (5,3V) voltage via a BEC is fed to the batt-port. The SPC port can handle 35V and has telemetry priority over the batt-port.

After I updated the transmitter firmware to version 1.08 (and at the same time the receiver to 2.00) the basic telemetry function has stopped working. Everything else in the upgrade worked perfect. I have tried all combinations of firmware versions on transmitter and reciever, and the telemetry only works with transmitter firmware version 1.06.

Does anybody know if it is possible to get the basic telemetry to work in transmitter firmware version 1.08?

Happy flying from Denmark :-)

Nicolai
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Old 04-25-2011, 10:03 AM   #2
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it sounds like the Hitec Aurora 9 has some DeadBand / Zone issues with it too, redo the upgrade, you might have gotten a step wrong when upgrading, hope that helps, Chellie

Contact Hitec if you have anymore issues with the telemetry



http://www.rcmodelreviews.com/aurora9issues.shtml


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Old 04-25-2011, 10:11 AM   #3
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some interesting info


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Old 04-25-2011, 01:12 PM   #4
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Originally Posted by nico View Post
Hi guys.

Ive been a very satisfied owner of the Hitec Aurora 9 and a Optima 9 for a month or so.
Ive been using the basic (without sensorstation) telemetry function which transmits the battery voltage back the transmitter.
Its hooked up so voltage directly from the flight pack (8S lipo) is fed to the SPC-port and regulated (5,3V) voltage via a BEC is fed to the batt-port. The SPC port can handle 35V and has telemetry priority over the batt-port.

After I updated the transmitter firmware to version 1.08 (and at the same time the receiver to 2.00) the basic telemetry function has stopped working. Everything else in the upgrade worked perfect. I have tried all combinations of firmware versions on transmitter and reciever, and the telemetry only works with transmitter firmware version 1.06.

Does anybody know if it is possible to get the basic telemetry to work in transmitter firmware version 1.08?

Happy flying from Denmark :-)

Nicolai
Did you also upgrade the MODULE firmware?

Please ignore the deadband comments.
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Old 04-25-2011, 08:21 PM   #5
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Hi, Just Reporting what might be a Issue and to be Aware of it, its been called a Dead Band or Dead Zone.

http://www.rcmodelreviews.com/aurora9issues.shtml

Hitec's Aurora 9 has a small issue

CALIBRATION A PROBLEM?


Dated: 28 Apr 2010
It can't be denied that Hitec's new Aurora 9 radio has hit all the right buttons for a lot of folks.
Existing Hitec fans are delighted with this huge step forward from the older Eclipse 7 and Optic 6 radios, while its features and performance are winning over more than a few previously staunch JR and Futaba fans.
So far, the Aurora 9 has had an enviable record when it comes to "issues" -- insomuch as it's been pretty much trouble-free.
Yes, some have moaned about the standard battery and the miserable charger that comes with the radio but by and large, it's hard to find serious fault with the design or construction of this transmitter. There have also been a few very minor software "fixes" but nothing that's going to rain on the average user's parade.
What's more, the 2.4GHz section of this radio has proven to be pretty bullet-proof too, capable of withstanding almost all the interference I threw at it in my testing and, unlike other systems, able to adapt to noise on the band through its "scan" mode.
Unfortunately, I haven't been able to get my hands on an Aurora 9 transmitter, so much of the above is simply hearsay obtained by listening to the comments of others. When funds (or possibly the generosity of brand-name suppliers) allow I plan to do a full shootout of the available 8-12 channel radios (including the A9) presently on the market.
However, it would appear that the A9 isn't perfect and a small number of users are reporting that they've encountered a "dead zone" at the extreme of stick movement in some cases.
The symptoms

Apparently, some users have found that on at least one stick, movement near the end of travel produces no corresponding movement of the servo. In effect, there is a "dead zone" there.
Now this isn't the first modern computerized radio that I've seen exhibit these symptoms. In fact there have been a number of folks reporting similar problems with the FlySky/Turnigy/iMax 9X radio and I've encountered exactly the same symptoms on one of these radios I had here.
It's not the end of the world of course and, in normal flying, it's most unlikely that anyone's going to notice if the last fraction of an inch of stick movement does nothing...
Unless, that is, it happens to be the lower part of your throttle stick that is affected (as it was on the 9X I encountered. It is actually very frustrating if the throttle servo doesn't track the first part of the stick movement precisely.
In the case of the Hitec, performing the built-in recalibration process doesn't seem to fix this problem -- and I think I know why.
What's the cause?

I'm speculating here, based on many years experience with microcontroller-based systems mind you...
At the heart of a modern computerized radio transmitter is a microcontroller -- a kind of "whole computer in a chip". This component does a huge amount of work but the first thing it does is convert the voltage which comes from your radio's stick units into a digital value.
To do this, a system called an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is used.
Most low-cost microcontrollers have 10-bit ADCs, which means that they have a maximum resolution of 1024 different values (hence the reason we've had 10-bit/1024 resolution in our computer radios for so many years.
In order to provide the maximum resolution for stick movement, it's important that the sticks are fed with a precise voltage and that the center position of the stick corresponds with exactly the mid-range of those 1024 steps that can be measured.
Now, if the potentiometer that measures the stick position (by returning a voltage) is not positioned so that the center-position is the mid-voltage then we have a potential problem.
In such a situation, it is possible that the voltage returned from the stick when it is moved to an extreme position, falls outside the maximum or minimum that the ADC can measure. In that case, the ADC simply returns a value of 0 or 1023 (depending on which end of the stick is affected).
In effect, the ADC can't report anything below 0 or anything above 1023 so when a misaligned stick tries to deliver a voltage outside that range, the value remains unchanged and therefore no servo movement is produced.
What's the fix?

The ideal fix is to move the potentiometer so that the stick center-position accurately represents the center-voltage. Unfortunately, the way most radios are designed, such tiny changes to the alignment of the stick and the pot are not possible.
Although some computer radios (like the Hitec Eclipse 7) are designed to allow easy centering of the potentiometers so as to avoid an endpoint dead-zone, it appears that some other radios (and that includes the A9) are not.
In fact, more often than not, these days the stick gimbal is keyed to the potentiometer shaft by a flat on that shaft so no change in the relationship of these two parts is possible. Also, the potentiometer itself mounts on the stick system such that it is keyed by a small metal tab on the body of the pot.
So, if a mechanical realignment of the parts isn't easy, what are the alternatives?
The pot could be replaced -- since it's likely that the one causing the issues is simply slightly out of spec. This will probably do the job, unless it's a design fault in the stick system alignment that's causing the problem.
Another possible solution is to add a small-value resistor in series with one of the pot-wires so as to slightly reduce the total voltage that appears across the pot and thus ensure that the stick movement doesn't result in values that exceed the ability of the ADC to track it.
In theory, this will also produce a small reduction of the total servo-throw on that channel but a recalibration of the transmitter and a small tweak to the EPA values should compensate for that.
Of course the best solution for most people would be to simply send the radio back under warranty -- and I recommend, wherever practical, that this is what people do. Fortunately for A9 owners, Hitec's after-sales support is the stuff that legends are made of so you'll be looked after -- once they figure out the cause and remedy.
However, if there are people out there who'd rather give this a go themselves then I'm happy to provide a blow-by-blow explanation of how to calculate the necessary resistor value and where to put it so as to eliminate an end-point dead-zone.
And remember, if you want a full RCModelReviews review of the A9, just let Hitec know
It's a bit of a shame that Hitec opted to use a cheaper microcontroller with just 10bits of resolution (1024 steps). If they'd gone for an 11-bit ADC they could have allowed for any pot misalignment and achieved almost twice the resolution (like the equivalent offerings from JR and Futaba) as well.
Still, it's worth remembering that the A9 is a very well-priced product and when establishing a competitive price-point in the market, some compromises must be made.

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Old 04-25-2011, 08:27 PM   #6
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Default DeadBand issue

I dont think this should be Ignored but Repaired if its a Safety Issue on anyones Radio


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Old 04-25-2011, 08:41 PM   #7
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Default Re: Basic telemetry gone after firmware upgrade of Aurora 9

Thanks for all your replies.
Just to be sure I tried updating everything once again and the problem went away. I dont know if I made a mistake the first time or something else went wrong but everything is ok now...

Still a happy owner :-)

Blue skies!

Sent from my U20i using Tapatalk
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Old 04-25-2011, 09:18 PM   #8
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Forget the deadband claims: it was too small to be of any import to any rational person.

Those of us who own and use the radio (and mine has the "defect") know that it is so trivial and unlikely to affect normal use as to be of no concern to non-technical consumers or typical users.
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Old 04-25-2011, 11:32 PM   #9
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Originally Posted by nico View Post
Thanks for all your replies.
Just to be sure I tried updating everything once again and the problem went away. I dont know if I made a mistake the first time or something else went wrong but everything is ok now...

Still a happy owner :-)

Blue skies!

Sent from my U20i using Tapatalk
Thats good to hear that its fixed now Its very easy to make a mistake when flashing a transmitter or receiver, or for some reason the flashing did not take hold, Take care and have fun, Chellie

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Old 04-26-2011, 12:23 AM   #10
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#TX-20100520 Aurora 9 Transmitter - Using EPA and D/R Functions Create Dead Zone in Stick Travel
We have confirmed customer reports of a software bug involving the End Point Adjustment and Dual Rate functions. When both functions are at their highest settings, there is a significant dead zone at the stick endpoints. Until this issue is resolved in a future software update, it is advisable for customers to keep either the D/R or EPA setting at 125% or less and the other at 120% or less.


The above combination is (1) inherently unlikely to occur under "normal" use, and (2) never going to result in a hazard owing to control loss since (3) the circumstances under which it could occur are (3) at the very end points of the sticks or servo travel.

It is for most anyone a mere theoretic nuisance, not a hazard.

While it may be a poor analogy, it seems to me that the condition is like driving a car in the rain, on a slick roadway, at 120 miles an hour, with bald tires, thus any hazard is likely to be one caused by the user or operator, not the device.
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Old 04-26-2011, 11:06 AM   #11
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Originally Posted by nico View Post
Hi guys.
Ive been a very satisfied owner of the Hitec Aurora 9 and a Optima 9 for a month or so. Ive been using the basic (without sensorstation) telemetry function which transmits the battery voltage back the transmitter. Its hooked up so voltage directly from the flight pack (8S lipo) is fed to the SPC-port and regulated (5,3V) voltage via a BEC is fed to the batt-port. The SPC port can handle 35V and has telemetry priority over the batt-port. After I updated the transmitter firmware to version 1.08 (and at the same time the receiver to 2.00) the basic telemetry function has stopped working. Everything else in the upgrade worked perfect. I have tried all combinations of firmware versions on transmitter and reciever, and the telemetry only works with transmitter firmware version 1.06. Does anybody know if it is possible to get the basic telemetry to work in transmitter firmware version 1.08?
Happy flying from Denmark :-) Nicolai
No Problem, please refer to the Hitec instruction regarding the V1.07 upgrade. When updating to V1.07, the Spectra module must also be updated to V2.0 as a separate process and your desired LBW (low Battery warning saved - even if the "blue auto values displayed" are to be accepted).
This because the Spectra module is also used by many Futaba and other TX which use the AFHSS system and it's telemetry system but do not have screen access similar to the Aurora. .

Hitec HPP-22 2.4GHz Programmer - Manual, FAQ - How to install & Use Instructions (with screenshots).
Aurora 9 - Firmware Update V1.06 Details.
Aurora 9 - Firmware Update V1.07(1) & (2) 01Oct10.
Aurora 9 - Firmware Update V1.08 Manual.....Screen shots of the new displays plus additonal information.
Spectra Module - V2.0 & HPP-22 V1.04 Update 01Oct10.
(inc PDF update enhancements, inc set failsafe via HPP-22 & how uninstall V1.03 before new install.)
Spectra Module - V3.01 update 18Apr11 - Manual.... Screenshots & further info.
Optima 7 & 9 - Firmware update V1.02 - 23Jun10, Update is for HTS-SS receptor system only,
otherwise not required as it does not impact other functions & resolution.

Note: The Spectra Module will need to be upgraded to latest V3.01 if intending to use the new "Minima" receivers (not transceivers like the Optima series)=
Optima Receivers - Light Weight Minima 6E, 6T Receivers & new Optima_6 LITE Transceiver
- also Caseless Weights for 6 & 7ch Optima Transceivers.



For those who took note of the several posts knocking the Aurora about a non event "deadband (null zone) issue"? and a "review" dated well after the permanent fix was in place, please refer to

Null Zone aka Dead Band issue - Dead (does not apply to TX issued after April 2010.)

and on another old thread:
"1) is there really an issue with a 'dead zone' on some TX such as described in this review and if there is was it addressed in a SW udpate yet?
That issue effected very few units manufactured prior to April 2010.
'Deadband' Register (a Google Spreadsheet), has only eight users worldwide reporting an issue with the "DeadBand/Null Zone". Very few others reported by separate PM.
Quote: "Stick deadband issue (poor description, it is more like a null zone at the very end of one side of the stick travel) has been resolved and is not present in any of the new systems we have shipped in the last 3 months. " - Mike Mayberry 30th August 2010. unquote.
A new hardware fix to board, is available for those with one of the early units (fix not possible by user). Refer direct to: Hitec Warranty & Service "

and many more questions answered on associated Forum -
Hitec USA Support Forum Sticky:
Aurora 9, Spectra Modules & Optima Transceivers - FAQ & Undocumented Features
- Mixes, Setups,Tips. {Individual Links often updated}

Alan T.
Alan's Hobby, Model & RC FAQ Web Links

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Old 04-26-2011, 01:05 PM   #12
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Thanks, A.T.: there is nothing worse than uninformed repetition of calumny.
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Old 04-26-2011, 02:19 PM   #13
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Originally Posted by spad View Post
Thanks, A.T.: there is nothing worse than uninformed repetition of calumny.
+1 - this thread was not about issues on a few early systems but it sure turned into that.

My A9 rocks and has been the best system I have ever used.

Nico - glad the redo has you fixed! I still need to update mine.
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Old 04-26-2011, 07:58 PM   #14
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For anyone to state or imply that the A-9 has ever had a design defect that affected the safe use of it is reckless at best, and knowingly false at worst.
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Old 04-26-2011, 08:14 PM   #15
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My My Some people sure get their Feathers Ruffled up when someone Informs them of Issues that may apply to their Transmitters Dont take a Warning So PERSONALLY PEOPLE ,Gee, I am afraid you might give yourself a Heart Attack LOL


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Old 04-26-2011, 08:43 PM   #16
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You went much too far when you stated or implied the matter to be an issue of safety.

Hitec is a great company, and deserves better than a common scold.
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Old 04-26-2011, 08:48 PM   #17
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Originally Posted by CHELLIE View Post
I dont think this should be Ignored but Repaired if its a Safety Issue on anyones Radio

See above.

Apparently, you just don't get it, or you choose to disregard the fact that the "issue" was never one of whether the transmitter is safe or unsafe-that is what offended me, and likely offends others. Spreading this falsehood or republishing something claimed to support this false assertion is what harms Hitec.

It WAS NEVER a safety issue, and, at best an isolated nuisance.

Hm....oh, my, I feel the big one coming on................................................ ......................
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Old 04-26-2011, 08:57 PM   #18
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[QUOTE=spad;804062]See above.

Apparently, you just don't get it, or you choose to disregard the fact that the "issue" was never one of whether the transmitter is safe or unsafe-that is what offended me, and likely offends others. Spreading this falsehood or republishing something claimed to support this false assertion is what harms Hitec.

It WAS NEVER a safety issue, and, at best an isolated nuisance.

Hm....oh, my, I feel the big one coming on................................................ ......................[/QUOTE]

Hurry go to the toilet LOL

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Old 04-26-2011, 08:58 PM   #19
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When you get your mind out of it, perhaps I shall.

"The big one" (heart attack) was coined by Red Foxx, as Fred Sanford, but you knew that-I don't deserve a common scold, either.
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Old 04-26-2011, 09:14 PM   #20
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Originally Posted by spad View Post
When you get your mind out of it, perhaps I shall.

"The big one" (heart attack) was coined by Red Foxx, as Fred Sanford, but you knew that-I don't deserve a common scold, either.

The Warning Was A Public Service Message Ment to Inform, and it May be a Safety Issue IMHO, Like it or Not, I Know I dont want any problems with my Transmitter Control Sticks going Haywire, So Please do Have a Nice day

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Old 04-26-2011, 09:19 PM   #21
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Who was Redd Foxx?.......lol

How bout them SF 49ers?...looks like there is going to be a NFL season this year!!
owners!!!!!!!!!!!
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Old 04-26-2011, 09:46 PM   #22
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Originally Posted by CHELLIE View Post
The Warning Was A Public Service Message Ment to Inform, and it May be a Safety Issue IMHO, Like it or Not, I Know I dont want any problems with my Transmitter Control Sticks going Haywire, So Please do Have a Nice day
Again, this is reckless: NO ONE has EVER contended that "sticks" go "haywire," or cause a loss of control, only that at the very end of travel a small amount of movement is lost.

I don't know what you "ment," or why you meant it, but the way you have said it, and continue to say it is, in my opinion, reckless, and hurts a fine company's well-deserved reputation.
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Old 04-26-2011, 09:52 PM   #23
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Originally Posted by spad View Post
Again, this is reckless: NO ONE has EVER contended that "sticks" go "haywire," or cause a loss of control, only that at the very end of travel a small amount of movement is lost.

I don't know what you "ment," or why you meant it, but the way you have said it, and continue to say it is, in my opinion, reckless, and hurts a fine company's well-deserved reputation.

EVERYONE is Entitled to their Own OPINION, Like it or Not

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Old 04-26-2011, 10:02 PM   #24
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Originally Posted by CHELLIE View Post
it sounds like the Hitec Aurora 9 has some DeadBand / Zone issues with it too, redo the upgrade, you might have gotten a step wrong when upgrading, hope that helps, Chellie

Contact Hitec if you have anymore issues with the telemetry



http://www.rcmodelreviews.com/aurora9issues.shtml

Originally Posted by CHELLIE View Post
Originally Posted by CHELLIE View Post
Hi, Just Reporting what might be a Issue and to be Aware of it, its been called a Dead Band or Dead Zone.

http://www.rcmodelreviews.com/aurora9issues.shtml

Hitec's Aurora 9 has a small issue

CALIBRATION A PROBLEM?


Dated: 28 Apr 2010
It can't be denied that Hitec's new Aurora 9 radio has hit all the right buttons for a lot of folks.
Existing Hitec fans are delighted with this huge step forward from the older Eclipse 7 and Optic 6 radios, while its features and performance are winning over more than a few previously staunch JR and Futaba fans.
So far, the Aurora 9 has had an enviable record when it comes to "issues" -- insomuch as it's been pretty much trouble-free.
Yes, some have moaned about the standard battery and the miserable charger that comes with the radio but by and large, it's hard to find serious fault with the design or construction of this transmitter. There have also been a few very minor software "fixes" but nothing that's going to rain on the average user's parade.
What's more, the 2.4GHz section of this radio has proven to be pretty bullet-proof too, capable of withstanding almost all the interference I threw at it in my testing and, unlike other systems, able to adapt to noise on the band through its "scan" mode.
Unfortunately, I haven't been able to get my hands on an Aurora 9 transmitter, so much of the above is simply hearsay obtained by listening to the comments of others. When funds (or possibly the generosity of brand-name suppliers) allow I plan to do a full shootout of the available 8-12 channel radios (including the A9) presently on the market.
However, it would appear that the A9 isn't perfect and a small number of users are reporting that they've encountered a "dead zone" at the extreme of stick movement in some cases.
The symptoms

Apparently, some users have found that on at least one stick, movement near the end of travel produces no corresponding movement of the servo. In effect, there is a "dead zone" there.
Now this isn't the first modern computerized radio that I've seen exhibit these symptoms. In fact there have been a number of folks reporting similar problems with the FlySky/Turnigy/iMax 9X radio and I've encountered exactly the same symptoms on one of these radios I had here.
It's not the end of the world of course and, in normal flying, it's most unlikely that anyone's going to notice if the last fraction of an inch of stick movement does nothing...
Unless, that is, it happens to be the lower part of your throttle stick that is affected (as it was on the 9X I encountered. It is actually very frustrating if the throttle servo doesn't track the first part of the stick movement precisely.
In the case of the Hitec, performing the built-in recalibration process doesn't seem to fix this problem -- and I think I know why.
What's the cause?

I'm speculating here, based on many years experience with microcontroller-based systems mind you...
At the heart of a modern computerized radio transmitter is a microcontroller -- a kind of "whole computer in a chip". This component does a huge amount of work but the first thing it does is convert the voltage which comes from your radio's stick units into a digital value.
To do this, a system called an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is used.
Most low-cost microcontrollers have 10-bit ADCs, which means that they have a maximum resolution of 1024 different values (hence the reason we've had 10-bit/1024 resolution in our computer radios for so many years.
In order to provide the maximum resolution for stick movement, it's important that the sticks are fed with a precise voltage and that the center position of the stick corresponds with exactly the mid-range of those 1024 steps that can be measured.
Now, if the potentiometer that measures the stick position (by returning a voltage) is not positioned so that the center-position is the mid-voltage then we have a potential problem.
In such a situation, it is possible that the voltage returned from the stick when it is moved to an extreme position, falls outside the maximum or minimum that the ADC can measure. In that case, the ADC simply returns a value of 0 or 1023 (depending on which end of the stick is affected).
In effect, the ADC can't report anything below 0 or anything above 1023 so when a misaligned stick tries to deliver a voltage outside that range, the value remains unchanged and therefore no servo movement is produced.
What's the fix?

The ideal fix is to move the potentiometer so that the stick center-position accurately represents the center-voltage. Unfortunately, the way most radios are designed, such tiny changes to the alignment of the stick and the pot are not possible.
Although some computer radios (like the Hitec Eclipse 7) are designed to allow easy centering of the potentiometers so as to avoid an endpoint dead-zone, it appears that some other radios (and that includes the A9) are not.
In fact, more often than not, these days the stick gimbal is keyed to the potentiometer shaft by a flat on that shaft so no change in the relationship of these two parts is possible. Also, the potentiometer itself mounts on the stick system such that it is keyed by a small metal tab on the body of the pot.
So, if a mechanical realignment of the parts isn't easy, what are the alternatives?
The pot could be replaced -- since it's likely that the one causing the issues is simply slightly out of spec. This will probably do the job, unless it's a design fault in the stick system alignment that's causing the problem.
Another possible solution is to add a small-value resistor in series with one of the pot-wires so as to slightly reduce the total voltage that appears across the pot and thus ensure that the stick movement doesn't result in values that exceed the ability of the ADC to track it.
In theory, this will also produce a small reduction of the total servo-throw on that channel but a recalibration of the transmitter and a small tweak to the EPA values should compensate for that.
Of course the best solution for most people would be to simply send the radio back under warranty -- and I recommend, wherever practical, that this is what people do. Fortunately for A9 owners, Hitec's after-sales support is the stuff that legends are made of so you'll be looked after -- once they figure out the cause and remedy.
However, if there are people out there who'd rather give this a go themselves then I'm happy to provide a blow-by-blow explanation of how to calculate the necessary resistor value and where to put it so as to eliminate an end-point dead-zone.
And remember, if you want a full RCModelReviews review of the A9, just let Hitec know
It's a bit of a shame that Hitec opted to use a cheaper microcontroller with just 10bits of resolution (1024 steps). If they'd gone for an 11-bit ADC they could have allowed for any pot misalignment and achieved almost twice the resolution (like the equivalent offerings from JR and Futaba) as well.
Still, it's worth remembering that the A9 is a very well-priced product and when establishing a competitive price-point in the market, some compromises must be made.
Originally Posted by CHELLIE View Post
I dont think this should be Ignored but Repaired if its a Safety Issue on anyones Radio

Originally Posted by spad View Post
You went much too far when you stated or implied the matter to be an issue of safety.

Hitec is a great company, and deserves better than a common scold.

AGAIN ALL OPINIONS, if its a Safety Issue, It Sounds Like, Some interesting Info, Reporting what Might be a Issue, Again If Anyone has a problem with That, Then IMHO, You Have a problem

I may be getting Older, But I Refuse to grow Up I am Having to much Fun to Grow Up LOL
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Old 04-26-2011, 10:02 PM   #25
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Originally Posted by CHELLIE View Post
EVERYONE is Entitled to their Own OPINION, Like it or Not
Including me.

However, it is a fact, not an opinion of fact, that the "issue" DOES NOT relate to safe operation, only whether or if a servo can be driven to the final limits of its travel.

Even "opinions" have their limits: once knowingly false or made with reckless disregard for falsity, they are no longer just "opinions."

So, it is my opinion, under the circumstances, that you continue to recklessly or knowingly and falsely claim or imply that the A-9 had or has a design defect which made or makes it "unsafe."

It is my further opinion that a silly little smiling face will not insulate you from the consequences if Hitec chooses to test what you "ment."
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